Super-resolution microscopy method captures sub-cellular motion at 11 frames per second
JUNE 10, 2009--A new advance in structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) is enabling researchers to capture videos of cellular processes while delivering super high resolution images of whole cells. Developed at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Farm Research Campus (Ashburn, VA), the method captures up to 11 images per second. SIM, which until now was too slow to image living cells, "fits a niche where you want to simultaneously have high frame rates and large imaging areas."
JUNE 10, 2009--A new advance in super-resolution microscopy is enabling researchers to capture short videos of fast-moving cellular processes while delivering high resolution images of whole cells. Developed at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Farm Research Campus (Ashburn, VA), the method captures up to 11 frames per second (fps); it is reported in the journal Nature Methods.
Mats Gustafsson, a group leader at Janelia Farm who is spearheading the work, introduced structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) in 2000, while at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). SIM takes advantage of moiré patterns, which are produced by overlaying one pattern with another: The sample under the lens is observed while it is illuminated by a pattern of light. Several different light patterns are applied, and the resulting moiré patterns are captured each time by a digital camera. Computer software then extracts the information in the moiré images and translates it into a three-dimensional, high-resolution reconstruction. The basic idea has been around since the 1960s, but wasn't fully realized until recently.
At UCSF, Gustafsson used SIM to visualize the molecular scaffolding that holds the shape of cells, with two-fold better resolution than a conventional microscope. Since then, his group has improved its resolution and also introduced three-dimensional SIM, making it possible to see parts of cells that go undetected using most light microscopes.
Until now, SIM was too slow to image living cells, whose inner parts are constantly in motion. "I've given talks on structured illumination microscopy as a means of generating high resolution images of fixed cells for several years," says Gustafsson. "The first question after my talks is always, 'Can you do this live?' We wanted to answer that question with 'Yes.'"
Now he can, thanks in part to the addition of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, a half-inch-sized mirror-like device that generates patterns of light using thousands of pixels that the researchers can control individually. Spatial light modulators are similar to liquid crystal displays in televisions and laptops, except that Gustafsson used a version with a much faster (sub-millisecond) response time. "That is precisely what we needed," Gustafsson says. With this part in place, a microscope can generate new patterns of light about 1,000 times faster than the original SIM equipment.
After adding the spatial light modulator to their microscope, they used it to visualize microtubules--long, thin filaments that provide structure and support to cells--in living fruit fly cells. They could see individual microtubules moving as the cell's skeleton reorganized itself to prepare for cell division. At 100-nanometer resolution, SIM revealed much more detailed images than could be obtained by traditional methods for live cell imaging.
To see if they could capture a faster moving target, Gustafsson's team tried live SIM on kinesins, proteins that carry cellular supplies along microtubule "tracks" at a blistering pace of about a micron per second. Microtubules and kinesins also help get cells ready to divide.
By setting the light intensity and exposure frequency just right, the researchers could see the kinesin zipping over the microtubule. They recorded the event by capturing images from the microscope at 11 frames per second for several hundred frames. "I was excited to see that we could image moving kinesin, which is one of the most rapidly moving processes in a living cell," Gustafsson says. "If we can image kinesin, we should be able to image most other cell processes."
In recent years, other groups have tweaked super-resolution microscopy methods, each of which has unique advantages, Gustafsson says. For example, researchers who developed stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy have made it possible to take videos of live cellular processes with 60-nanometer resolution. Unlike SIM, however, STED is limited to a small field of view. "We think this technique fits a niche where you want to simultaneously have high frame rates and large imaging areas," he says.
The technique can be adjusted to fit individual researchers' needs. Gustafsson has started collaborations with researchers who plan to use SIM to see how cells migrate toward or away from chemical targets. And although the research reported in Nature Methods used 2D-SIM, 3D-SIM is also on the horizon. Gustafsson says this will require making adjustments to the hardware and taking more images per frame.
For more information, see the paper, Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination, in Nature Methods.